CBN is a mildly psychoactive cannabinoid that is produced from the degradation of THC. There is usually very little to no CBN in a fresh plant. CBN acts as a weak agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, with greater affinity for CB2 receptors than CB1. The degradation of THC into CBN is often described as creating a sedative effect, known as a “couch lock.”
CBDa occurs in the resin glands (trichomes) of the cannabis plant. It is the precursor of cannabidiol (CBD). CBDA is considered inactive until it is activated and then it becomes active CBD. To activate CBDA, it must be aged and go through a heating process (decarboxylation) to convert it to CBD.
Along with CBD, this raw acid-form does not have psychoactive effects. There are many potential benefits to this compound with studies showing that the molecule has positive effects when taken alone or in combination with other cannabinoids via the entourage effect.
- Anti-proliferative – prevents cancer cell migration, noted specifically in cases of aggressive breast cancer.
- Antiemetic – reduces nausea and vomiting.
- Anti-inflammatory and pain reduction through COX-2 inhibition.
- Positive effect on seizures for the treatment of epilepsy, also when used in combination with CBD.
- Anti-anxiety effects.
- Potential anti-depressive effects through 5-HT1A receptor activation.
Terpinolene has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer effects in rat brain cells. Studies with mice show that terpinolene has a sedative effect when inhaled. In addition, terpinolene is responsible for many of the floral notes found in Jack Herer varieties.
THCV is a minor cannabinoid found in only some strains of cannabis. The only structural difference between THCV and THC is the presence of a propyl (3 carbon) group, rather than a pentyl (5 carbon) group, on the molecule. Though this variation may seem subtle, it causes THCV to produce very different effects than THC. These effects include a reduction in panic attacks, suppression of appetite, and the promotion of bone growth. THCV acts as an antagonist at the CB1 receptor and a partial agonist at the CB2 receptor.
Myrcene is the most prevalent terpene and is found in most varieties of cannabis. Myrcene concentration dictates whether a strain will have an Indica or Sativa effect. Strains containing over 0.5% of myrcene produce a more sedative high, while strains containing less than 0.5% myrcene have an energizing effect. Myrcene is also present in thyme, hops, lemongrass, and citrus, and is used in aromatherapy.